Hiccups - physiological reaction, which consists in the reduction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.It is a mini-breath with the closure of the epiglottis, causing a short-term episode of "suffocation".Frequency hiccups can be up to 60 times per minute, depending on the intensity of the contractions of the diaphragm.

Some biologists suggest that the hiccup is a reflex of higher vertebrates, aimed at the removal of air from the stomach.This theory is supported by the fact that the removal of air, physiological hiccups stopped.


  • 1 Different kinds of hiccups
    • 1.1 Gallery: Causes central hiccups
  • 2 Peripheral hiccups - examples of diseases
    • 2.1 Gallery: causes peripheral hiccups
  • 3 Video: why develop hiccups

Different kinds of hiccups

Physiological called hiccups, not associated with any disease, in contrast to pathological hiccups.

The diaphragm , the phrenic nerve

diaphragm structure

The mechanism that causes the hiccups, is relatively simple - increase the signal stre

ngth coming along nerve fibers in the diaphragm muscle, it leads to periodic reductions.If the pulse was a single, then after 5-15 minutes hiccups stopped.

physiological reason Hiccups can be a fright, sudden cooling of the body, pain, shock, laughter and other causes simultaneous "bursts" of neural activity.

Frequent causes of food also becomes dry rations (flatulence), as well as excessive alcohol consumption.

Pathological hiccups associated with the signals coming from the affected organs and tissues, especially if these organs or tissues have a common innervation of the diaphragm (ie, a "branch" of a nerve trunk).

As a source of irritation isolated "central" and "peripheral" hiccups.Central hiccup linked to spinal cord and brain diseases, such as injuries, mental disorders (psychoses, depression) and malignant processes in the central nervous system.

Gallery: Causes central hiccups

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Peripheral hiccups - caused injury (traumatic or compression) of the phrenic nerve, the nucleus of which is located in the cervical region of the spinal cord, as well as the defeat of the vagusnerve.This includes a hiccup caused by diseases of the esophagus, heart, stomach and intestines, is innervated by branches of the vagus nerve.A variation of this kind of hiccups considered "Reflected" hiccups occurring against the backdrop of worm infestation (ascariasis, enterobiosis, colitis, enterocolitis).

Besides encephalitis and meningitis (of any origin), the cause of pathological hiccups could be measles, and chicken pox.In adults, the smallpox virus can cause permanent damage to the nerve fibers, which leads to hiccups, which may last for decades.

Hiccups can be a consequence of inflammatory changes caused by rubella.

addition, pathological hiccups frequently assigned after severe forms of influenza and SARS.The reason for sometimes becomes malaria and toxoplasmosis.

Quite often hiccups is one of the symptoms of secondary forms of syphilis, secondary syphilis as a neurotropic disease.

Hiccups can be caused by carry-forward of mumps (mumps) and other diseases of the salivary glands.Sometimes hiccups is a complication of cosmetic surgery in maxillofacial surgery.

Peripheral hiccups - examples of diseases

phrenic nerve often enough becomes interested with pleurisy (of any origin), as well as lung tumors.In the latter case, the tumor presses on the phrenic nerve, which causes hiccups attacks.It is also in tumors of the mediastinum.The reason can become and inflammation of the nerve (optic neuritis).

Gallery: peripheral causes hiccups

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Hiccups frequently accompanies gastroesophageal reflux (GERD).In this case, because of the casting of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus, mucous membrane is damaged, and thus the receptors.The resulting pain information being transferred in part to the phrenic nerve, which causes hiccups.

hiccups are characteristic of chronic bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).

Similarly hiccup occurs when food allergy, gastritis, gastroduodenitis, gastric and / or 12perstnoy ulcer and other diseases of the digestive system.

Hiccups sometimes a symptom of narrowing of the valve between the stomach and intestine 12perstnoy and malignant tumors in the stomach or intestines.

If you are experiencing hiccups attacks, see a physician for an extended period of time.In some cases this allows time to diagnose severe somatic and mental pathology.

Video: why develop hiccups