Typhoid fever - an acute infectious disease that is caused by Salmonella and is accompanied by fever and general symptoms of intoxication.The causative agent of the disease is a gram-negative motile rod - salmonella, it belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae viruses.
Expert Opinion: Salmonella bacteria typical and nothing to do with viruses is not.Do not confuse the virus and bacteria, because they are completely different organisms and methods of eliminating them radically different.
only source of the disease - is the man.As a rule, the tanks are chronic abdominal type bacillicarriers.Such people tend to stay healthy, but within a year a lot of isolated Salmonella.They are not isolated, visiting places with large concentrations of people, fulfill their duties in the field of water and food.
- 1 Ways of infection of typhoid
- 2 main symptoms
- 3 Possible exacerbation and relapse cases
- 4 Complications of the disease
- 5 Differentialdiagnosis of typhoid fever
- 6 Treatment and prevention
Ways of infection of typhoid
The most common way - is oral - fecal when people become infected by eating infected food andwater.Contact - household way usually infected children, but such cases are very rare.Water outbreaks of infection occur in water treatment violation, while pollution of water sources, water system failure.
in foods such as milk and meat sticks may be a long time, and even multiply.
susceptibility to the disease in humans is different.Immunity depends on the natural immunity and the relevant vaccination.When a large-scale infection in the outbreak of the epidemic can be affected 50% of the population.Typhoid fever is found in absolutely all climate zones and in all parts of the world.Of course, in the tropical zone of the disease is more common.
Usually the disease affects the human body gradually.Time of onset of the disease is extremely difficult to establish.Patients exposed the weakness of the body, fatigue, slight fever, headaches.Every day, the symptoms intensified, the body temperature rises.By the seventh day of the disease the body temperature reaches 40 degrees.Intoxication is becoming more intense, disturbed biological clock disappears appetite, develops flatulence.
At the initial stage of the disease patients are usually reveal the general intoxication of the organism.The defeat of the internal organs are not observed.Patients more inhibited, little exercise, lie with your eyes closed.His face pale, patients, and the skin is dry.Blood pressure is much lower than normal.
On the ninth day the patient will show up typhoid roseola.Roseola are located on the bottom of the chest area and on the abdominal wall.Education typhoid disappear after 4 days, but the risk of re-equipped.
must know that the clinical picture of infectious disease does not always coincide with the listed symptoms, because many of them have weak expression, which means that they can be infected and not experience.
Possible exacerbation and relapse cases
In some cases, it becomes protracted process, which is characterized by the occurrence of exacerbations.Complications arise due to the fact that the symptoms of intoxication are reduced, but relevant indicators do not reach.Against this background, the disease grows, the liver is greatly increased, body temperature above normal, pulse weak.
Relapses are different from exacerbations that after a partial recovery in humans the symptoms are repeated again.Relapses typhoid transferred much easier.Duration slight relapses, usually equal week.As a rule, such cases are extremely rare.
Complications of the disease
The most dangerous complication of typhoid fever - an infectious-toxic shock.Accompanied by abdominal pain shock.On examination, the patient is observed tension of muscle tissue, and in some situations, a symptom-Blumberg SHCHetkina.Neurotoxicosis pronounced, increased sweating.
Differential diagnosis of typhoid
This infectious disease is differentiated from diseases which are characterized by the following similar symptoms: fever, general signs of intoxication.Brucellosis, malaria, typhus, septicemia - all of these diseases are characterized by similar symptoms to typhoid fever.For this reason, the most accurate diagnosis difficult.The appearance of a three-day fever lasting requires thorough laboratory research.Typhoid blood culture is indisputable evidence of the presence in a patient of typhoid.
Diagnostics Laboratory. The most effective method for the detection of disease - it is to identify the causative agent.For this exercise, blood cultures in 10 ml per 100 ml of the bile environment.In general, a blood test has a lot of specific features.At the initial stage of the disease in the patient's blood is an intensive growth of leukocytes.After a certain amount of time is replaced by leukocytosis leukopenia.platelet concentration rapidly decreases.Followed by a blood test, qualified doctors prefer to vaccination.
Treatment and prevention
At the slightest suspicion of typhoid patient urgently to be hospitalized.Patients adhere to certain diets.The local hospitals infected appoint a so-called table at number 4. All courses taken must be boiled.Power is supplied in small portions.
The patient is obliged to strictly observe the pastel mode.Along with diet and regime, patients go through detoxification treatment, they are administered crystalloid solutions.In severe cases, the patient is assigned to a complete rest and hunger, the amount of liquid is not more than half a liter per day in small doses.Write out suffered typhoid fever after three weeks of a healthy body temperature.
Prevention of typhoid fever is based on sanitary measures.The water supply system must comply with all regulations.Workers in laboratories, hospitals, sewage systems should be vaccinated.The dose of the vaccine for people of any age and physique is 0.5 ml.