Gastric ulcer - a recurrent chronic disease, which is expressed in the expression of the mucous lining of the stomach.

Depending on the factors causing this pathology, ulcers are divided into:

  • stress (caused by stress factors);
  • iatrogenic (caused by the intake of drugs gastrotoxicity);
  • endocrine ulcers (caused by disorders of metabolism and diseases of the endocrine glands);
  • secondary ulcers (caused by various diseases of internal organs).

the main factor in the emergence and development of gastric ulcers is considered malicious infection by the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori.


  • 1 causes and mechanisms of gastric ulcers
  • 2 Symptoms of stomach ulcers
  • 3 Diagnosis of gastric ulcers
  • 4 Treatment of gastric ulcers
  • 5 Prevention of gastric ulcers
  • 6 prognosis of gastric

causes and mechanisms of gastric ulcers

1. Stress ulcer - it is an expression of the mucous membrane of the stomach wall, caused bysevere injuries and operations, acute dis

eases of various organs, severe hepatic or renal insufficiency, a terminal state (collapse, shock), severe tissue hypoxia.It is proved that under the influence of several factors provoking the risk of developing such ulcers increases markedly.

Stress ulcer makes itself felt at the time of breaking the balance between the impact of the factors that damage the gastric mucosa, and the factors that protect it.During the period when all body systems operate in enhanced mode occurs in the large release of catecholamines and blood corticosteroid growth promoting mucosal secretory activity and significantly reducing its protective properties.Thus there is a violation of the trophism of tissues and gastric hemorrhage wall to facilitate expression of the mucosa.

stress ulcers occur most frequently in the walls and bottom of the body of the stomach.The majority of patients are not diagnosed stress ulcers, because after curing the underlying pathology, which has become a stress factor for the body, this ulcer heals alone.

2. Iatrogenic (drug) ulcer occurs as a result of taking the drugs, possessing side, gastrotoksicheskim action.Causing ulcer effect have:

  • sulfonamides;
  • most anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal drugs, corticosteroids);
  • caffeine;
  • glucocorticoids;
  • potassium chloride;
  • nitrofurans;
  • digitalis preparations;
  • anticoagulants.

mechanism of mucosal damage in each case is also different.Some drugs have her direct destructive action, while others - indirectly represented in the form:

  • reducing the protective properties of the mucosa caused by the suppression of gastroprotective agents;
  • increase gastric acid secretion;
  • suppress the natural trophism of the stomach wall.

vast majority of medicines combines immediate, direct mucosal damage with indirect influence.After the cancellation of drug therapy, pathology provoked the development of ulcers heal safely.

3. Ulcer with hyperparathyroidism - it is an expression of the gastric mucosa caused by excessive production of PTH parathyroid glands.One effect of this action is to stimulate the production of substances of hydrochloric acid and gastrin gastric glands.

ulcers arising from hyperparathyroidism are usually localized in the duodenum or stomach antrolnoy zone.Such an expression of mucosa is poorly bloodless treatment, often recurs, and is complicated by perforation of the stomach wall and bleeding.

4. Secondary ulcer - it is an expression of the gastric mucosa, which may be complicated by pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, as well as diseases of the digestive, respiratory and excretory systems.

Symptoms of stomach ulcers

The main symptoms of gastric ulcers include:

  • appearance of pain in the stomach, worse after eating;
  • vomiting;
  • heartburn;
  • heaviness in the stomach;
  • decreased appetite;
  • flatulence.

When the origin and development of ulcers, localized in areas of antral stomach, symptoms may be supplemented by the night hungry and pain.

Diagnosis of gastric ulcers

Key data for diagnosing stomach ulcers are prepared by the following studies:

  • gastroscopy (endoscopic examination of the stomach);
  • contrast radiography;
  • detect helicobacter using bacterial inoculation test, PCR, ELISA, and the breath test;
  • biochemical blood analysis (study of the stomach for hidden bleeding).

Treatment of gastric ulcers

In the treatment of gastric ulcers is crucial rigid adherence to a special diet.In particular, patients are encouraged to exclude from the diet of all the dishes that have an irritating effect on the gastric wall and contribute to enhanced production of gastric juice (sour, salty, spicy, smoked and fried foods).

Drug therapy is the appointment:

  • gastroprotective agents (Venter, denol);
  • antacids (Aluminium phosphate gel, Almagelum);
  • proton pump inhibitors (rebeprazola, omeprazole, esomeprazole, and their analogues);
  • of antibiotics to eliminate infection helikobakterialnoy.

Uncomplicated gastric ulcer does not require surgery.Resection (removal of part of the stomach) is assigned only in case of severe complications: obstruction, perforation, ulcers, malignancies, as well as frequently relapsing disease, not treatable by conservative methods.

prevention of gastric ulcers

Prevent the occurrence and development of gastric ulcers can be through:

  • avoiding traumatic, stressful situations;
  • helikobakterialnoy early diagnosis of infection and its treatment;
  • failure uncontrolled by medication;
  • normalization diet.

prognosis of gastric

Uncomplicated and timely detection of gastric ulcers always recover without difficulty.With the development of poor prognosis disease complications.