Biochemical blood test can tell a lot about the state of the human body.One of the most important indicators is the Gamma-GT.It has other names: gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT and gamma-glutamyl.
- 1 What is it?
- 2 main reasons for increasing the activity of GGT are:
- 2.1 syndrome cholestasis
- 2.2 syndrome cytolysis
- 2.3 effects of alcohol
- 2.4 Influence of drugs
- 2.5 neoplastic lesions
- 2.6 Other reasons
What is it?
GGT - is a microsomal enzyme involved in the metabolism of amino acids.It is present in cell membranes and cytoplasm.Its significant concentrations noted in the liver, pancreas, kidney and prostate in men.Because women prostatic not, gamma-GT activity in them is 2 times lower.Small amounts of the enzyme are found in other tissues except muscle.
norms for different research methods are different, but are dependent on age and sex.Increase Gamma GT - it is always a sign of trouble.The main component is the value for the diagnosis of liver diseases,
main reasons for increasing the activity of GGT are:
- bile stasis - cholestasis;
- death of liver cells - cytolysis;
- influence of alcohol;
- development of cancer process;
- damage other organs.
All of these changes can be caused by external influences, as well as internal factors, leading to the defeat of the liver and other organs.
liver disease is often characterized by stagnation of bile.Cholestasis is the most common cause of enhancing the activity of gamma-GT.The indicator can be increased more than 5 times and compared with the norm.Cholestasis is characterized by impaired bile formation and its removal from the biliary system into the duodenum.
If these disorders are associated with the pathology of the liver itself, we speak of intrahepatic cholestasis.His reasons may be:
- viral hepatitis;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis;
- toxic damage (alcohol, drugs).
If stagnation is associated with impaired excretion of bile from extrahepatic duct, this state is called the extrahepatic cholestasis.The main reasons are:
- tumor in the bile ducts;
- cancer of the head of the pancreas or stomach, leading to compression of the common bile duct.
Under the action of bile acids are released from cell membranes of enzymes, including gamma-GT.All this begins to flow into the blood.Skin acquire a yellow tinge, marked pruritus.You receive a number of other symptoms.In addition to increasing blood GGT experiencing higher than indicators of alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, bile acids.The urine appears urobilinogen.ALT and AST increased to a lesser extent.
To combat cholestasis, you must first remove the cause.If the stones or tumors, they should be removed.If necessary, use gepatoprotektory.In order to improve education and the outflow of bile prescribe cholagogue preparations:
- ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursosan);
- hepatic fees.
death of liver cells is accompanied by the release of these and penetration into the bloodstream enzymes, including gamma-GT.There cytolysis of viral and toxic liver damage (alcohol, drugs, toxins).Perhaps, and autoimmune damage in systemic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus.This liver tissue develop antibodies that cause adverse change.
But the main role is played by hepatitis viruses B and C, which for a long time can not itself be.Changes in the biochemical analysis of blood found by accident, and after a series of additional studies established the diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis.If the process is acute, the gamma-GT increased blood before aminotransferases (ALT, AST).At the height of its activity the disease becomes smaller, but the figure is normalized considerably longer.
Liver damage can be caused by a virus, Epstein-Barr virus, which is the cause of infectious mononucleosis.It is characteristic inflammation of the throat, swollen lymph nodes and fever.
Heavy damaging effect is hepatotoxic poisons:
- pale toadstool toxins;
- phenol and its derivatives;
- bacterial toxins.
To improve the condition of the liver enzymes and lead to normal, you need to find and eliminate the cause of such changes.In this situation, come to the aid gepatoprotektory by which restored the cell membranes of hepatocytes and normal liver function.
For the treatment may be used:
- essential phospholipids - Essentiale, Essliver;
- essential phospholipids with glycyrrhizic acid - Phosphogliv;
- ademetionine - Geptor, Geptral;
- ursodeoxycholic acid - Ursosan, Ursofalk;
- herbal preparations - Kars Silibinin, Legalon.
effects of alcohol
Alcohol stimulates the production of GGT.This is in addition to a direct toxic effect.People who drink a lot and often, the degree of increase of this indicator is clearly dependent on the number of drink ethyl alcohol.This test can be used successfully for detection of alcoholism, and to monitor treatment.Upon cancellation of the alcoholic beverages on days 10 gamma-GT activity in the blood is reduced by 50%.
recommendation here is one - stop to drink alcohol.Otherwise develop alcoholic liver disease, manifested by its fatty infiltration (steatosis), followed by atrophy of the liver cells.The next step should be alcoholic cirrhosis.And this is a permanent change.
Influence of drugs
affects the increase in the formation of the enzyme, many drugs that have gapatotoksicheskoe action.These include:
- nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs - acetaminophen, indomethacin, nimesulide, aspirin, diclofenac;
- antibiotics - amoxiclav, tetracycline, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, nitrofurans, sulfonamides, cephalosporins;
- anti-TB drugs - isoniazid, rifampicin;
- hormonal - estrogens, androgens, anabolic steroids, corticosteroids;
- antipsychotic drugs - chlorpromazine, haloperidol;
- Barbiturates - phenobarbital;
- anticonvulsants - benzonal, carbamazepine, diazepam;
- anticancer drugs;
- antifungals - amphotericin B, griseofulvin, ketoconazole, fluconazole;
- means for anesthesia - ether, halothane, chloroform;
- cardiovascular drugs - anti-coagulants, nifedipine, captopril, diuretics, enalapril, amiodarone, losartan, antianginal, statins;
- other groups - azathioprine, allopurinol, methotrexate.
This is not the whole list.The induction of liver enzymes is often associated with direct toxic effects and cholestasis.If an increase in liver enzymes is detected during treatment, the drug overturned and replaced by another.Hepatoprotectors help restore liver function abnormalities.
GGT significant increase is observed in cancerous lesions of the liver as the primary and the appearance of metastases.Enzyme activity may be increased in pancreatic cancer and prostate in men.This figure is reduced in the period of remission increases with the progression of the disease.
Increased gamma-GT is due to many factors: the loss of cells within the ducts stagnation and toxic effects on the background of cancer intoxication.
way out here alone - the treatment of cancer by surgery or through chemotherapy exposure.But also the chemotherapy can cause elevated liver enzymes.
Since the enzyme is present in most organs, its increase can be observed in various diseases:
- Inflammation of the pancreas - pancreatitis.
- diabetes, which is often associated with pancreatic disease.
- hyperthyroidism - hyperthyroidism.
- severe heart failure, in which the developed congestion and formed cardiac cirrhosis.
- Renal disease: glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome, pyelonephritis, renal insufficiency.
- Neurological diseases.
- brain diseases.
- Burn (peak increase of gamma-GT about 10 days).
- Hormonal drugs for thyroid.
Yet the definition of gamma-GT is the most sensitive test is the pathology of the liver, even more informative than other markers: ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase.And if it goes up, then the cause must be sought in the first place here.Monitoring of this indicator can be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment.