gastric or gastrointestinal bleeding is called a pathological condition associated with a violation of the integrity of the vascular plexus of the mucous membrane of abnormal areas of the stomach or intestines to the expiry of the blood beyond the bloodstream into the lumen of the organ.This condition refers to a very dangerous, because it can lead to death.This rich blood supply associated with gastric and intestinal walls, and high intensity blood pressure in the vessels.When disturbed their integrity, this can lead to heavy bleeding and a large blood loss.
Risk of hemorrhage
When the blood begins to leave the vascular bed, with her leaving vitality and energy.The faster this happens, the worse the prognosis for the patient.After gastric bleeding symptoms are entirely dependent on several factors:
- Localizing the source of bleeding;
- diameter and the number of bleeding vessels;
- Common blood pressure;
- disease that caused bleeding;
- patient's general condition, age and comorbidities.
intestinal thrombosis after surgery
While bleeding is a loss of a certain body of circulating blood volume.They are lost, erythrocytes, and blood plasma.This affects the provision of blood, oxygen and nutrients to all organs and tissues.There is a lack of oxygen, especially sensitive systems - the nervous and cardiovascular.There is centralization of circulation, in which the fully closed and spazmiruyutsya all small vessels of the skin, limbs and minor bodies.Thus, the body tries to maintain blood circulation in the most vital systems (heart and brain).If the bleeding is not stopped in time, it will inevitably lead to a gradual death of the organism.
In the case of chronic blood loss is a loss is not so much the volume of circulating blood, as red blood cells.This state does not carry the danger of a direct threat to life, but provokes the development of post-hemorrhagic anemia (decrease in the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells), which disrupts the normal functioning of all organs and the general state of the organism.The more expressed her degree, the brighter the clinical manifestations.
Signs of gastric bleeding
main thing with any kind of stomach bleeding - timely detect them.With massive acute bleeding arisen, problems regarding the diagnosis does not occur.Their existence is so bright that immediately indicate the correct diagnosis as soon as they arise.Quite different is the case with chronic bleeding.At the same person for a long time can not ignore the secondary symptoms, is not disturbed general condition.
symptoms based on which it is possible to suspect gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:
- Vomiting blood clots, brown mass on the type of coffee grounds;
- Nausea, vomiting earlier;
- Decorated cal black (tarry);
- liquid bloody or dark cherry feces (melena);
- Falling blood pressure numbers (hypotension);
- Frequent palpitations and heart rate (tachycardia);
- Pale skin and mucous membranes;
- dizziness and general weakness;
- Fainting and dizziness - the most ominous signs.
important to remember that bleeding into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tube differ from internal bleeding that when the last blood flows into the peritoneal cavity.Thus there is no direct contact of the blood with air.Therefore, it is possible to pour back to the patient by intravenous infusion.When gastric bleeding is no such possibility.They usually start spontaneously, without any previous symptoms.If the vessel involved is large, then vomiting and disturbance of the general condition develop simultaneously.If the bleeding is gradual, then the fore signs of blood in the cavity of the digestive tract.Overall condition is violated with the increase of anemia.
stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer - the main cause of gastric bleeding
Causes gastric bleeding
Gastrointestinal bleeding rarely independent disease.Usually they complicate during various pathological processes in the stomach and intestine.They are direct causes of bleeding into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract.Such diseases include organ cavitary lesion shown in the table.
|esophageal pathology|| |
|stomach diseases|| |
|defeat duodenum|| |
|intestinal pathology|| |
|defeat of colon and rectum|| |
All additional methods of research, which must pass through the patient, consists of a diagnostic complex, which will help eliminate internal bleeding:
- Permanent control of blood pressure and heart rate;
- general clinical blood test.Are important indicators of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and hematocrit (percentage of the liquid portion of the blood to a formless elements);
- Biochemical blood.Showing determination of renal and hepatic complex to avoid problems with these authorities as the cause of bleeding;
- fibrogastroscopy - visual inspection of the esophageal mucosa, gastric and duodenal ulcers.It is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastric bleeding and can be worn as a diagnostic and therapeutic in nature.This may be detected and the bleeding vessel made attempts endoscopic hemostasis;
- Sigmoidoscopy and fibrocolonoscopy - visual diagnosis of the lumen of the rectum and large intestine.Performed by analogy with fibrogastroscopy if suspected colonic bleeding.
Useful video about gastrointestinal bleeding:
Prehospital should be taken such action:
- Place the patient in a horizontal position;
- Apply cold to the stomach;
- transport the patient with bleeding in this position to the nearest medical facility.
All further aid measures must be provided in a surgical intensive care unit or under the supervision of specialists.They may be presented:
- emergency field treatment.It was shown in the case of the ongoing active bleeding that can not be stopped or drug initially serious condition of the patient;
- conservative therapy.It includes intravenous infusions of saline solutions, blood products and blood components (plasma and RBC);
- Introduction hemostatic drugs and parallel treatment of the disease that caused bleeding.