Knowledge of the structure of the digestive system helps to recognize the symptoms of diseases faster and more accurately characterize the feeling in a conversation with the doctor.One of the most important parts of the digestive tract is the colon.He has a complex structure, and each person should know his anatomical features and basic functions.
- 1 Features of the structure and function of the colon
- 2 Departments colon
- 3 colon in children and infants
- 4 Common diseases of the colon
Features of the structure and function of the colon
intestine consists of two divisions: the colon and the small intestine.The large intestine - is the lower intestine, which goes into the anus.Anatomy of the colon has its own peculiarities and differences.The colon is shorter but wider than the thin.
small intestine can be up to 4 meters long and thick - 1,5-2 meters.The diameter of the colon can reach 8 cm, tapering to the anus
colon longitudinal muscle has three belt over the entire length.In other words, along the bowel stretches thin strip of muscle.In the colon, but rather on the muscle strips, arranged as stuffing processes.This small accumulations of fat.The muscular layer of the colon is quite uneven, which creates a kind of bumps on the body of the gut.It resembles the accumulation of swellings and constrictions.
As the small intestine, large intestine consists of the mucosal layer, a submucosal, muscular and serous.The outer serosal layer of the uneven surface of the intestine itself in some areas may be omitted.Before digested food reach the rectum, it can be in the colon sections day.In
colon living microorganisms more than thin.There are no less than 500 kinds.Colon performs several important functions:
- Digestive.Digested food coming from the small intestine continues to be digested in the colon.Food residues together with bile compacted, formed feces.
- excretory.After the colon there are various toxic substances and other unwanted body waste products.If this process is delayed, the poisoning can begin.The food moves through the colon slowly than thin.Peristalsis is enhanced only when the stomach gets the next batch of food.Thus, colon prevents stagnation of food in the digestive system.
- protective.It is no secret that it is responsible for the human gut immunity.On the intestinal mucosa of various live bacteria that perform a protective function.It is important to maintain this balance, to the human immune system does not suffer.
- absorptive.In the colon absorbed excess water, vitamins and nutrients from food residues.
are the following sections of the large intestine:
- cecum.This colon department looks like a bag to 9-10 cm in diameter. Identify the cecum functions is difficult.Once it has played an important role in the digestion of plant foods, but lost this function with time.At one end of the cecum is a small pouch called the appendix, whose role is also completely unclear.We only know that this process is part of the immune system, protects against the harmful effects of alien organisms.But in spite of uncertain function, itself the cecum and the appendix can become inflamed.In the appendix and bowel sphincter have not missing remains of undigested food in the process.
- ascending, transverse and descending colon.The colon represents the largest of the large intestine, it can reach a length of one and a half meters.In general, colon (ascending, descending and transverse part) reminiscent of a semi-circle or rim.The cecum goes into the ascending colon.The main function of this department - to absorb water from food residue, making the stool hard and push them further along the intestine.The colon is easily palpated at the examination.
- Sigmoid colon.Sigmoid colon is between the rectum and colon.It has a curved shape, which is reflected in its name (Latin "sigma").The diameter of the sigmoid colon is about 4 cm. This large intestine plays an important role.Here, most of the absorbed water and nutrients from digested food residues.Then, this moisture is distributed to other organs and tissues.The sigmoid colon continues formation of feces and promoting it through the intestines.Due to the curved shape in the sigmoid colon often delayed stool, causing constipation, which can cause inflammation of the sigmoid colon.This colon department is on the left side of the abdomen and palpable when viewed without difficulty.
- rectum.This final division colon and generally the entire intestine.The length of the rectum is only 15 cm. The rectum is different structure.Inside the intestine is lined with mucous cells.It takes away the mucus in the stool for violations of the chair.In the truest sense of the word colon is not direct, it has two bends.It completes the process of digestion, finally formed stool and prepared for removal from the body.
On the anatomy of the colon, learn from the video:
colon in children and infants
the time of the birth of the colon has not yet finished its formation, so the large intestine of a newborn baby has its own characteristics.Heavy baby intestine performs all the same functions as that of an adult.
But initially infant colon is not typical bulges and constrictions, it is smooth.No packing and formations.All this formed the child by about 2 years.The large intestine of a newborn baby in length is slightly more than 60 cm.
By the year it increased by about 20 cm, and then equal to the growth of the child.The final form of the colon takes 4 years.Various departments of the colon can develop unevenly.
cecum eventually takes the usual position, but in its infancy, it is located high up under the liver.The appendix, which ends with the cecum, a young child has a size of no more than 4 cm, and a year has already grows up to 7 cm. Its position is difficult to determine exactly, since it is quite agile process.
cecum and appendix in its infancy clearly separated from each other.colon loops are also increasing in the course of the child's growth.The rising portion of the colon is the shortest (2 cm), it remains so until a year and then begins to grow.
Sigmoid colon in an adult is at the bottom, in the pelvic area.The child pelvis is underdeveloped, so the sigmoid colon is lifted, lying in the abdominal cavity.By age 5, sigmoid colon takes its usual position.The inner layer of the colon is lined with epithelium containing various cells.
The child that flatter epithelium.In the crypt epithelium are, then there are small depressions in the form of tubes.Crypt inside and lined with epithelial cells.The colon has more crypts are deeper in the newborn baby.
Direct baby colon also has anatomical features.In children, the rectum is still not developed and is curved.Therefore, young children often suffer rectal prolapse (more often than adults).
Common diseases of the colon
In diseases of the colon are more common disorders stool, pain and flatulence.But hypovitaminosis and rapid weight loss for colon diseases are not typical.Common diseases:
- Ulcerative Colitis.Under colitis involve chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine.This disease is characterized by a change of relapses and remissions.The causes are not known reliably.only provoking factors can be identified: other gastrointestinal diseases, autoimmune diseases, lowered immunity, etc.Among the symptoms of ulcerative colitis - diarrhea with blood or mucus.Stomach ache while, "twists" are possible false urge to defecate.Prolonged diarrhea leads to dehydration, weight loss.Perhaps medical treatment with hormones and other drugs, as well as surgical treatment in case of suspicion of oncology.
- colon cancer.Like any oncological disease, colon cancer at an early stage it has almost no symptoms.It can detect when examining.In this case, it will be effective radiotherapy.In the second step still prevents tumor metastasis, so the chances of recovery are higher than in the third or fourth stage.Symptoms of the disorder include stool, abdominal pain, tenesmus, flatulence, feeling of incomplete defecation.
- irritable bowel.Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by different symptoms.For someone it is manifested in the form of constipation, gas, the other - in the form of diarrhea, and abdominal pain, a third blood appears in the stool, with no other disorders.The causes of this disease is not known.Some factors trigger the onset of symptoms.This can be a food, medicines and stress.Treatment consists of a diet as well as taking medications, removing the symptoms of the disease.
- Diverticulosis.As a result of this disease on the colon surface develops small protuberances called diverticula.The main cause is improper diet, lack of plant foods and the predominance of flour and fatty foods in the diet.By the action of the pressure in the colon and these protrusions are formed.Usually they do not have certain symptoms, but may be accompanied by abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating.Sometimes these diverticula accumulated food remnants, from which they are inflamed.
If any symptoms of colon diseases need to consult specialists.In the early stages, you can cure virtually every disease without affecting the digestive process.Neglected diseases are rapidly moving into a chronic stage and require compliance with the diet throughout life.
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